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IATA and ICAO in partnership with AFRAA, ASECNA, AASA, AFCAC, ACI Africa, CANSO, IFALPA, Boeing and Airbus convened AFI 2012 Aviation Safety Summit from 14 to 16 May 2012 to develop an AFI Strategic Improvement Action Plan to be implemented from 2012 to 2015, in order to strengthen regulatory oversight and enhance safety performance of the Region.

 AFI safety summit
                                                           Executives present at the AFI Safety Summit.

The Safety Summit agreed the following AFI Strategic Improvement Action Plan, the report which will be submitted for endorsement to the African Union Ministerial Meeting on Aviation Safety planned in 2012. The Regional Aviation Safety Group (RASG), whose Chairman endorsed this Action Plan, will use its mechanism to ensure the implementation of the Action Plan.

In order to significantly improve safety in Africa by end of 2015, the Summit focused on five (5) achievable tasks. These tasks are a result of an analysis of accidents in Africa carried out by IATA and ICAO for the 2006-2010 period.

In the analysis, it was observed that the main influencing factors of accidents are lack of effective Regulatory Oversight, lack of implementation of Flight Data Analysis (FDA) and Safety Management Systems (SMS). Implementation of these processes/tools could have identified precursors to the two major accident types, namely Runway Excursions (RE) and Loss of Control (LOC).

The following five (5) recommendations will not exclude other aviation safety related programs under way and/or being conducted by any aviation organization:

1) Adoption and implementation of an effective and transparent regulatory oversight system

The analysis of the accidents identified weak regulatory oversight as the most significant contributing factor to accidents involving African air carriers. This situation set up latent safety risks in operational environment.

The root cause of weak regulatory oversight is lack of, or weak primary legislation and inadequate financial and human resources available to the regulators.

The solution lies in pooling together the existing scarce resources at the regional level. In Central America, ACSA is considered as one of the most advanced and successful Regional Safety Oversight Organization (RSOO), particularly in terms of its financial sustainability.
Effective regulatory oversight will not only remove unsafe latent conditions in the operational environment in the Region but increase credibility leading to the removal of international restrictions imposed on African airlines.

The Action Plan therefore includes:
Short term:
States in the AFI region continue their efforts to enhance primary Aviation Laws, Regulations and Procedures.
Enforce strict compliance with ICAO SARPs and related guidance material.
Mandate the implementation of IOSA to all airlines in AFI Region.
ICAO to facilitate implementation of bilateral or multilateral agreements where appropriate Article 83 bis of the Chicago Convention (1944) by AFI States needing assistance for safety oversight.
RSOOs be strengthened to become fully operational in providing Regulatory Safety Oversight on behalf of their member States.
RSOOs and States make use of the AFI Cooperative Inspectorate Scheme (AFI-CIS) in order to optimize the use of resources.

Long term

Other AFI COSCAPs be strengthened and transformed into RSOOs in order to support member States and;
Recommend industry audit programs such as ISAGO, to ensure the implementation of industry best practices.

2) Implementation of runway safety measures

Runway excursions, which mainly occur during the landing phase represent approximately 25% of the accidents in Africa.

A common single factor in landing excursions is an unstable approach and an associated human factor (failure to go-around, CRM). Weather and in particular, rain and tail winds are the other main contributors to runway excursion.

IATA and ICAO in conjunction with other industry partners have developed Runway Excursion Risk Reduction (RERR) toolkit. The implementation of this toolkit will improve safety in Africa.

The Action Plan therefore includes:
Short term:
State Regulators to undertake to comply with ICAO SARPs, runway safety program and other guidance material pertaining to runway safety.
Increase level of awareness on runway excursions incidents and accidents, by providing training on RERR Toolkit to all technical staff:
       - RERR toolkit practices and recommendations to be included as requirements during crew and Approach/Tower Air Traffic Controllers initial and refresher training, as well for all Aerodrome Operational Managers and aerodrome landing surfaces maintenance staff.
Conduct workshops for stakeholders (Regulators, airline operators, ANSPs and Aerodrome officials) on the runway safety toolkit and runway excursion prevention system.
PBN approaches to be developed in the Terminal Management Areas (TMAs) in line with AFI Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Regional Roadmap, and Continuous Descent Operations (CDO) to be consistently implemented.

Long term

ANSPs to continue developing PBN procedures at airports.
Airlines to continue CDOs as part of PBN procedures in TMAs.

3) Training on preventing Loss of Control (LOC)

Loss of control has been the most significant fatality risk in aircraft accidents for many years in AFI region as well as worldwide.

Almost 30 % of fatalities involving 111 Africa hull loss/fatal accidents were due to loss of control. This situation calls for rigorous actions from manufacturers, regulators and operators to mitigate the risk associated with Loss of Control.

Procedures, training and development of practical and cost effective technology is required to mitigate LOC risks.

Regional Aviation Safety Group AFI (RASG-AFI) has been established for AFI Region last March, 2012 in Kampala,

The Action Plan therefore includes:
Short term:
RASG AFI establishes a LOC Team that would review all the relevant initiatives, and develop for each one a Detailed Implementation Plan (DIP).
RASG implements the LOC DIP with specific Key Results Area with a very specific time frame.

4) Implementation of Flight Data Analysis (FDA)

ICAO has mandated FDA for all operators.

IATA requires that all it members comply with the FDA requirements through IOSA and therefore all IATA members are 100% compliant with ICAO requirements. This is not the same with non-IATA members.

There is a need to have AFI regulators ensure all other operators in the region fully comply with ICAO requirements to improve the safety culture. The experience from IATA's Implementation Program for Safe Operations in Africa (IPSOA) and lessons learned would immensely benefit the region.

The Action Plan therefore includes:
Short term:
All State enforce FDA requirement across all their AOC holders
All AFI carriers effectively implement FDA to enhance safety culture development in operations.

Long term:

All AFI carriers shall participate in safety data sharing.

5) Implementation of Safety Management Systems (SMS)

ICAO safety management requirements include those calling for implementation of the State Safety Programme (SSP) as well as safety management systems (SMS).

The adoption of Annex 19, anticipated in 2013, will facilitate implementation by providing States and industry stakeholders with a consolidated reference of safety management provisions.

A revised version of the ICAO Safety Management Manual (SMM) will provide more detailed guidance on the phased SSP and SMS implementation.

SMS On-Site Assistance by IATA has resulted in SMS implementation in operations of 15 airlines in three (3) steps program:
• Step one, conduct in-house SMS workshop;
• Step two, perform SMS gap analysis;
• Step three, implement the required programs to bridge the gaps.

The Action Plan therefore includes:
Short term:
Regulators to ensure SMS requirements for operators are embedded in State regulations and that a regulatory framework is established for aerodrome certification:
        - Identify suitable qualified inspectors for the assessment of SMS implementation;
        - Launch a program to assess compliance and effectiveness of SMS by its Operators.
On-site assistance for SMS implementation through various associations (AFRAA, AASA, Professional Committee of Air Operators in DR Congo – CPTA, Kenya Association of Air Operators – KAAO, etc.) air navigation service associations such as CANSO and airport operators associations such as ACI Africa with the APEX Program.

Long term:

All CAAs should follow the SSP implementation plan, as per ICAO Annexes and guidance material.

IATA, ICAO, AFRAA, ASECNA, AASA, AFCAC, ACI Africa, CANSO, IFALPA, NCAA, Boeing and Airbus agreed and concurred with the above recommendations.

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